Day 1 :
Linnaeus University, Sweden
Keynote: Mining of Glass dumps for recycling
Time : 10-10:30
William Hogland completed his PhD in Water Resources Engineering at Lund University in 1986, after which he established a division in Waste Management and Recovery at Lund University and organised it as an academic subject. In 1999, he got full professorship in Environmental Engineering and Recovery at Linnaeus University in Kalmar, Sweden. In the mid-1990s, he established research in Landfill mining in cooperation waste management companies in Sweden, the Baltic Sea region and Europe. He has also established the subject in some parts of Asia and written manuals on Landfill mining. Furthermore, he has over 500 publications and reports, 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers and has produced about 20 doctors. 2015 he got the Elsevier Atlas Award for “Research for a Better World” and 2017 the honorable Sweden Impact Award 2017 in “Physical Sciences&Engineering”. Currently, he heads the Environmental Science and Engineering Group at Linnaeus University.
Landfills and dumpsites have been the ultimate end-of-life sinks for various materials. Since the mid-1990s, the Environmental Science and Engineering Group at Linnaeus University has established research in Landfill mining in cooperation waste management companies in Sweden, the Baltic Sea region and Europe. In the ‘Kingdom of Crystal’ in southeastern Sweden, centuries of crystal glass production have resulted in over 50 contaminated glass dumps with heavy metals leaching to soil, surface and ground water. Unlike re-landfilling of materials in the on-going remedial excavations of the dumps, excavated materials could instead be re-directed into the circular economy. To achieve this, Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) is used before excavations to identify buried glass ‘hotspots’ for careful excavation to avoid material mixing and ultimate sorting needs. Thereafter, excavated materials are sieved, hand-sorted, scanned with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and leached to generate waste composition, particle size distribution, metal contents and leaching potential, which are vital parameters for material handling and metal recovery processes. ERI has successfully identified glass ‘hotspots’ with waste composition around 90% glass and 30–40% fine fractions (>11.3 mm). The materials are around neutral pH with hazardous concentrations of As (13,000 mg/kg), Cd (400 mg/kg) and Pb (200,000 mg/kg), but with non-hazardous concentrations in leachate (<0.1 mg/l for As and Cd and 8 mg/l for Pb). However, careful handling and storage is recommended to avoid environmental contamination and health hazards. Lastly, metal extraction through reduction-melting has shown high potential for recovery of As (99%), Cd (100%) and Pb (99.9%). The methodologies developed so far in glass mining could achieve landscape restoration, environmental contaminants minimization and contribution to circular economy through provision of potential secondary resources (extracted metals and decontaminated glass) for use in other industrial applications.
APK AG Merseburg, Germany
Time : 10-10:30
Dr.-Ing. Hannes Mann received his Master degree as well as his PhD in process engineering at the Otto-von-Guericke-University in Magdeburg, Germany. He started his professional carreer at Radici Chimica Deutschland GmbH in Elsteraue, Germany, as Technologist and is now working for the APK AG in Merseburg, Germany, as Process Engineer Core Technology. Next to being responsible for the Process Development for Conceptual Plant Designs, Dr.-Ing. Mann is also the Technical Advisor for Process Engineering for the Pilot Plant in Merseburg.
In Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW), the recycling of plastics is one of the most challenging tasks. Every year 78 million tons of plastics are used for packaging and need, therefore, to be treated afterwards. About 20 % of this amount consists of monolayer or multilayer films. As polymers have a decomposition duration of some 100 years, simple disposing is no sustainable option. To prolong the current life cycle of plastic products is desirable and the way forward.
- For plastics reycling, different options are possible which all require pre-treatment process steps such as sorting and cleaning.
- The conventional mechanical recycling is converting the feed directly by extruding or compounding the cleaned plastic waste. Therefore, this approach is not able to separate multilayer films which may consist of different polymers. Consequently, the product is a mixture of different polymers with varying material properties which can only be used in applications which tolerate product impurities. Due to these reasons, this approach is also known as “downcycling”.
- During chemical recycling, the polymer chains are broken down to their monomers e.g. by pyrolysis with a relatively high energy input. Afterwards, the polymers are built up again from said monomers. The product can be called virgin material and fulfills the expected properties.
- The solvent-based recycling is somewhere between the beforementioned processes: based on the selective dissolving of polymers, virgin-like products can be generated after separation. Additionally, re-additivation is possible e.g. during extrusion in order to achieve the desired properties that were lost during the polymers’ previous life cycle.
The APK AG operates an 8.000 kt/a pilot plant with the solvent-based Newcycling® process in Merseburg, Germany. It is the company’s goal to continuously improve the process, for example to widen the processable feedstock.
- Recycling Basics | E-Waste Recycling | Solid Waste Management | Waste Water Recycling | Paper Recycling | Industrial Waste Recycling | Chemical Waste Recovery | Food Waste Recycling | Agriculture Waste Recycling | Rubber Recycling | Recycling Market
APK AG Merseburg, Germany
Time : 11:15-11:35
Title: Temporal changes in mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced and polypropylene fiber reinforced aggregate recycling concrete
Time : 11:35-11:55
Hasan BAYLAVLI works in Hitit University Construction Technology and Building Audit Programs, in Çorum, Turkey as Research Assistant. Completed associate degree program in 1997 in Gazi University Çorum Vocational School Construction Program. Graduated from Pamukkale University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering in 2000. Did Master’s degree in Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering Building Materials. Still does doctorate in University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering Building Materials. Works in these subjects: self-compacting concretes, fiber-reinforced concretes and recycling. Furthermore, has studies in the fields of university campus planning, green campus and energy-efficiency in buildings.
In this study, recycling aggregates were obtained from polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete produced in different types and proportions. Polypropylene fiber-reinforced welding concrete was broken in a jaw crusher at the end of 120 days, and recycling aggregates of 0-4mm, 4-15mm and 15-22, 4 mm dimensions were obtained. With the polypropylene fiber-reinforced recycling aggregates obtained, concrete is produced again. Polypropylene fiber reinforced aggregate recycling concrete has been added in two (2) different ratios of steel fiber. Steel fiber reinforced concrete produced has been awaited for three years in the laboratory environment. The compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, elasticity modulus, bending strength, and bending strength deformation of the suspended concrete were investigated. The compression, tensile splitting, and bending strength and the modulus values of elasticity have increased slightly depending on the time. The abrasion and water imbibition values of hardened concrete samples were also measured. The addition of steel fiber has improved abrasion strength. The water imbibition ratio has also increased with the addition of steel fiber.
Universidad Veracruzana Mexico
Time : 14:35-14:55
Although most developing countries have serious problems with the issue of waste management, there have been some success stories including the development of environmental public policies, which had led to better life quality. In most developing countries, waste management considers only two stages: collection and final disposal. The collection system does not include a differentiated collection of the municipal solid waste (MSW), this implies that the valorisation of the different waste fractions becomes more difficult to separate and most of them are dumped on uncontrolled sites. Meanwhile, the landfilled sites are limited and usually are about to exceed their capacity. In certain rural and semi-urban localities is common practice to burn their waste, polluting the air, soil and even water. Local authorities are doing some efforts to prevent this pollution type, but it does not always work properly. However, there are certain successful cases like Teocelo, Veracruz, Mexico. This is a semi-urban locality where since the year 2000 the inhabitants are contributing to waste management in different ways. All the people separate their waste in organic and inorganic. Only the inorganic fraction is managed to the collection system, while a part of the organic fraction is usually composted in homes and the rest is treated in a composting plant. Until now the people of the locality keep this way of living and considers that the care of the environment is important for this and new generations.
University of Boras, Sweden
Babak Nemat completed master's in Industrial Design from Iran and Sustainable Product-Service System Innovation from BTH University, Karlskrona-Sweden. Currently, he is a Ph.D. student at the University of Boras-Sweden. His research main theme is how different attributes of food packaging can influence separation of food packaging waste.
Among household solid waste (HSW) components, the waste of packaging has become a symbol of disposal in today’s societies due to its materials diversity, processing, and quantity. The packaging waste forms 30-35% of total HSW, on a global scale. However, the packaging waste could be valuable resource for material recovery if it properly separated and sorted by consumers. Waste separation rather than citizen’s duty is a moral obligation that demands actively engage a consumer with the process. Hence, the packaging communication ability with a consumer has been taken into consideration to encourage and leading a consumer through sorting food packaging waste. Different types of packaging may influence consumer behavior in different ways. So, the communication to be effective needs to specific knowledge about the influence of each packaging attributes on consumer recycling behavior. This research, therefore, sets out to identify, analyze, and evaluate the influence of different attributes of six-types of yogurt and cream packaging on consumer decision-making for sorting of packaging waste. The research conducted through an interview with 15 families in a medium-sized Swedish city. The result revealed that the sorting of packaging waste is not done to the extent it should be and choosing recyclable materials is by no means a guarantee that packaging will be sorted by consumers. This is due to negligence occurred in the design of visual attributes, material selection and inconsistency between the form and different functions of theses packaging which is able to negatively influence consumer decision-making, during the sorting process.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Institute for Separation Chemistry of Marcoule (Occitanie), France
Thomas Zemb has obtained his master in nuclear engineering at ETH-Zurich, his thesis in biophysics at Institut Curie in 1978 and his habilitation in 1985 in solid state physics at the age of 32 years. He is Founding Director of the Institute for Separation Chemistry (ICSM), a joint venture between University of Montpellier, Atomic energy and alternative energy commission, CNRS and ENSCM. Full professor in colloids at INSTN since 1992. He designed and built several small angle scattering cameras specially designed to measure the weak scattering produced by aggregated extractant molecules. . He designed, built and used several original small angle scattering cameras specially designed to measure the weak scattering produced by aggregated extractant molecules.
-Humboldt-Gay Lussac price 2008 working at Max Planck in Potsdam and at University of Regensburg. -European Colloid Solvay Price for the understanding and usage of catanionic solids in 2003
-Thomas Graham medal in 2013 for the starting of ienaics approach of separation and recycling.
-Overbeek Gold medal for colloids and interfaces received in 2017 linked to the 300+ publications in international journals that appeared since the first one devoted in 1972 to zeolithes as possible storage material for paramagnetic wastes
Hydrometallurgy heavily relies on liquid-liquid extraction. Liquid-liquid extraction is a colloidal and interfacial process driven by chemical potential differences of cations dispersed in different liquids. Current methodology at lab, pilot or plant scale is systematic experiment plans to select best conditions. Phenomena as ubiquitous as synergy between extractants have no explanation, as well as the usage of solvotropes1or hydrotropes to increase yield and reduce third phase formation.
Going beyond the classical modelling by supra-molecular chemistry and set of parallel transfer reactions modelled as decomplexation-recomplexation reactions, the “ieanics” approach considers only chemical potential differences between organized fluids (as for electron potential in doped semi-conductors). The solvent phase contain weak aggregates of complexing molecules sharing properties with water-poor reverse micelles 2. Chemical potential includes mixing entropy in disordered fluids3. This approach relies on the identification by X-ray and neutron scattering of the extracting dynamic aggregates (as well as the precise measurement of the free energy of transfer4. Relative role of entropy versus solvation was understood for hydrotropes only in 2016. 5
Making greener knowledge-based processes heavily relies on this ieanics approach that uses quantities that are measurable instead of state of equilibrium constants between “complexes” and “speciation”.
Several examples of processes for which predictive modelling allows minimization of effluents will be given:
- Optimizing mole ratio between solvating and ion-exchanging extractant molecules: entropy only improving selectivity
- Noble metal recovery from wastes using diamide using advanced molecular topology with matching affinity.
- Probing the existence of uranyl tri-sulfates in the AMEX process in presence of modifiers 6
as well as new possibilities allowed by the usage of hydrotropes in a formulation for which small dynamic ultra-flexible microemulsions are formed.
University of Cordoba, Spain
Auxi Barbudo has extensive research experience, shown through 23 journal publications (index h = 12 and i10 = 14). She participated last year at the 2nd World Congress and Expo on Recycling, held in Edinburgh, Scotland, and in a total of 18 congresses. She has proven professional experience as a researcher in 5 research projects, 2 research contracts, a stay in a European research centre, as reviewer in the process of publishing scientific articles, and as evaluator of international research projects. Her actual research topic is the application of recycled materials in the construction sector with decontaminating power.
The circular economy is an economic model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products. The use of recycled materials in products with low mechanical requirements, especially those from construction and demolition waste (CDW), is a common practise in construction sector. In addition, the incorporation of photocatalysts (mainly nano-TiO2) in construction materials has emerged as a promising technology to develop products with special properties as air decontamination, self-cleaning and self-sterilizing ability under UV-Vis light irradiation. This research aims to study the decontamination power of recycled mortar with recycled fine aggregate from CDW. For this, two different series of mortars were produced. One series contained traditional Portland cement and the other one photocatalytic cement, which included TiO2. Both cements had the same requirements. Each series contained 4 mixtures with 4 different rates of replacing natural sand with mixed recycled sand (0%, 20%, 40% and 100%). 40x40x160 mm specimens were manufactured and were evaluated through mechanical strength (compressive and flexural strength), after 28 days. A sample of each mortar was sent to an external laboratory and analysed its photocatalytic power, following a standardised methodology. The results showed good mechanical behaviour despite the incorporation of recycled aggregate and a similar behaviour between mortars with photocatalytic cement.
A Road to Zero waste organization – Zambia
Langizyya has completed her first degree in environmental education from the University of Zambia at the age of 40 years. She is the director of a nongovernmental organization called A Road to Zero waste in Zambia, Southern Africa. She has also worked for 15 years as a secondary school teacher of English and History under the ministry of Education in her country. While at the University of Zambia she was an ECO police which is an environmental program of sensitizing students and the university community about hygiene matters.
Alleviate 5000 people from infectious diseases in 4 compounds within Lusaka, Zambia: Lusaka the capital city of Zambia has about 43 unplanned settlements which host 70% of the city population. Most of these settlements have experienced untold forms of suffering due to regular occurrences of infectious diseases such as cholera nearly every rainy season. The infectious diseases are attributed to the poor hygiene and lack of safe clean water. Once rainfall received exceeds 800mm in a season, (Nchito 2007), such unplanned settlements experience the outbreak of infectious diseases immediately. Some of the unplanned settlements identified out of the 43 unplanned settlements are Matero, Kuku, Misisi and kalikiliki. These out breaks date as far back as 2000 and the most dangerous being the period of (2017 – 2018) rainy season, which is reported to have killed a total of 865 people out of which 212 were under five and 656 were over five ( MOH 2018). The total cases of Cholera recorded in the report were 35, 580; out of which 11, 612 were fewere than 5 and 23, 942 were over 5.
The challenge in these unplanned settlements is those three – quarters (3/4) of the people here, still depend on water from shallow wells and use pit – latrines which are less than 3 meters apart. This results in ground water mixing with fical matter and there by resulting in infectious diseases which kill 54.7% of children.
The focus of this project therefore, is to train approximately 5000 people in segments in environmental health issues such as sanitation and hygiene, construct low cost manual boreholes for 5000 beneficiaries in Lusaka`s Matero, Kuku, Misisi and Kalikiliki compounds. The project will then formulate borehole maintenance committees which it shall work closely with, hire local artisans and necessary manpower needed for the construction purposes. These works will ensure supply of clean and safe water and acceptable hygienic pit latrines, derived from the training in environmental health issues.
Zero waste organization wants to end the out breaks of infectious diseases like cholera and typhoid in Zambia by 2026.
JFE Steel, Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Japan